Document Type : Scientific-research


1 PhD student in Philosophy, University of Tehran

2 Associate Professor in Philosophy, University of Tehran


Mathematical, physical, and theological sciences are separate and segregated sciences, but concurrently have a kind of unity. This is not so-called generic unity, but as a consequence of the specific unity of the meaning of being, is a special structure called Analogical unity i.e unity according to priority and latency. This structure, on the one hand, is a factor for distinguishing scientific disciplines and preventing their mix-up, on the other hand, it warranties the integrity and unity of philosophy. Therefore"Philosophy" applies firstly upon theology, then upon physics, and according to priority and latency applies upon other sciences which themselves have parts that are arranged according to the same rule and construct the network of the system of sciences. In this article, we investigate how Aristotle accomplish this special unity. In the introductory books of metaphysics, Aristotle first, in the great Alfa, characterizes the wisdom or Sofia as knowledge of the first causes and principles, then in Beta in the first Aporia, shows the perplexity between the unity and multiplicity of wisdom, and in the next step in Gamma for eliminating this bewilderment establishes his specific theory, that is to say, the unifying structure in the multiplicity of wisdom. Therefore ought not to consider so-called general metaphysics as unit separate science but as second-order science, only establishes under the multiplicity of philosophical sciences.


ابن سینا (1405)، الشفا،جلد: 4 و 10، تصحیح: ابراهیم مدکور و ابوالعلا عفیفی، مکتبة آیة‌الله المرعشی. قم.
ــــــــــــــ (1428)، الهیّات من کتاب الشفا، حسن حسن‌زاده آملی، بیروت، مؤسسة التاریخ العربی.
ارسطو  (1980)، منطق ارسطو، حققه و قدّم له عبدالرحمن بدوی، بیروت-کویت.
ابن رشد (1377)، تفسیر مابعد الطبیعه، ج1، تهران، حکمت (افست).
ایلخانی، محمد (1378)، « نظریه تشابه analogia در یونان»، فلسفه، 70-91.
زالی، مصطفی (1396)، تشکیک و خارجیت وجود؛ تأملی بر رویکرد ابن­ سینایی در نحوۀ احراز وحدت موضوع مابعدالطبیعه، جاویدان خرد، ش31، ص67-90.
نوسبام، مارتا (1374)، ارسطو، ترجمۀ عزت‌الله فولادوند، تهران، طرح نو.
Aristotle.) 1984(, The Complete Works of Aristotle, The revised Oxford translation, Edited by Jonathan Barnes, Princeton University.
Barnes, J. (2000), Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction, New York, Oxford University.
Crubellier, M. a (2009), Aristotle: Metaphysics Beta, New York, Oxford University Press.
During) 1966(, Aristoteles, Darstellung und interpretation sense Denkes, Heidelberg.
Reale, Giovanni (1980), The Concept of First Philosophy and the Unity of the Metaphysics of Aristotle, Editor& translator John R. Catan, Suny Press.
Heidegger, M. (1967), Sein und Zeit, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag Tübingen. Being and time. 1996 Trans, Joan Stambaugh, New York, State University of New York.
Hesse, M. (2005), “Aristotel’s Logic of Analogy”, The Philosophical qurterly, 328-340.
Jaeger, W.W. (1962), Aristotle: Fundamentals of the History of his Development, london, Oxford,Clarendon Press.
Owen, G. E. L. (1960), “Logic and Metaphysics in Some Earlier Works of Aristotle”, in I. During and G. E. L. Owen (edd.)
Owens, J. (1978), The doctrine of being in the Aristotelian Metaphysics, Torento, Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.
Politis, V. (2005), Aristotle and the Metaphysics, london, Routledge.
Plato (1963), The Collected Dialogues, Edith Hamileon and Huntington. Princeton university pres.
Ross, S. W. (1936),  Aristotle's Physics; A Revised Text with Introduction and Commentary, Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Shields, C. J. (2002). Order in multiplicity: Homonymy in the philosophy of Aristotle, Oxford University.
Simplicius, Chase, M., & Simplicius (2003), On Aristotle'sCategories 1-4”, Cornell University Press.
Ward, Julie K (2008) Aristotle on Homonymy: Dialectic and Science, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Yu, Jiyuan (2002), “What is the Focal Meaning of Being in Aristotle”, Apeiron, 34 (3), 205- 232.