A Critical Review of Peter Singer's Speciesism Argumentation on Animal Rights

Document Type : Scientific-research

Authors

1 PhD Student of Islamic Maaref - Ethics Education, Baqir al-Olum University

2 Assistant Professor of the Islamic Sciences and Culture Academy

Abstract

One of the most important reasons for Peter Singer, Defender of animal rights, is that many human behaviors with animals are based on speciesism. He considers the rights of animals and humans equally and calls the human special attention to their own kind "speciesism" and considers any use of animals as an instrumental and incorrect use . In his view, speciesism is the same as racism and just as racism is morally wrong speciesism is also wrong and. In this article article, while examining and criticizing Singer's argument, it is clear that what is condemned is the unreasonable preference of one species over another , which in comparison of human with the animal is eliminated due to the special advantages of the human species because of the specific superiority of human kind is and considering the human specific position in existence the difference between behavior in the face of  humans and animal is different from racism and as a result, purposeful and responsible human use of animals is allowed And human superiority not only does not prescribe his superior view of the animal, but must lead to greater respect for animal rights. Without claiming the anti-racist logic, not paying attention to the difference between the dignity of man and animal and not paying attention to the place of man in the universe are among the criticisms that can be leveled at singer

Keywords


کتاب مقدس: عهد عتیق و عهد جدید (1383)، مرتن هنری و  ویلیام گلن، ترجمۀ فاضل‌خان همدانی، چ 2، تهران، اساطیر.
آل بویه، علی‌رضا (1396)، «سقط جنین و استدلال آینده ای شبیه آینده ما»، اخلاق پژوهی،  دوره 1، ش 1، 57- 86.
ــــــــــــــ (1398)، سقط جنین از منظر اخلاقی، چاپ دوم، تهران، سمت.
جبل عاملی، زین‌الدین (1413ق)، مسالک‌الافهام الی تنقیح شرایع‌الاسلام، ج 8، قم، بنیاد معارف اسلامی.
تیموری فریدنی، علی‌اکبر (1398)، «بررسی دیدگاه پیتر سینگر دربارۀ ذبح اسلامی حیوانات»، معرفت اخلاقی، دورۀ 10، ش 26 ، 85-95.
سینگر، پیتر (1396)، آزادی حیوانات، ترجمۀ بهنام خداپناه، تهران، ققنوس.
ــــــــــــــ (1388)، یک جهان: اخلاق جهانی‌شدن، ترجمۀ  محمد آزاده، تهران، نشر نی.
ضیایی‌موحد، محمد و محمدرضا شرفی (1395)، «شهود گرایی و استدلال‌گرایی در فلسفه اخلاق و تربیت اخلاقی»،  پژوهشنامۀ اخلاق، دورۀ  9، ش 31، 31-52.
 
«مصاحبه نایجل واربرتن با سینگر»، 30/12/1399، ساعت 22:08:
  محمدرضایی، محمد (1386)، «براهین عقلی اثبات حیات پس از مرگ»، قبسات، دوره 12، ش 46، 71- 82.
موسوی، محمود و نفیسه سموعی  (1392)، «الحاد در نقاب تکامل‌گرایی، بررسی و نقد آرای الحادی ریچارد داوکینز» ، قبسات، سال 18، ش 69 ، 135-157.
نجفی، محمدحسن (1367ق)، جواهر الکلام فی شرایع الاسلام، ج 27 و 36، چاپ سوم، تهران، دارالکتب الاسلامیه.
                                                                                                                               
Kaczor, Christopher (2011), The Ethics of Abortion: Women's Rights, Human Life, and the Question of Justice, new York, routledge.
Tuohey, John (1992), “Has the Animal Rights Movement Achieved Philosophical Legitimacy?”, J Med Hum, 13, 79–89.
Fjellstrom, Roger (2003), “Is Singer’s Ethics Speciesist?”, Environmental Values ,the white horse press, 91-106.
Ryder, Richard. D. (2010), “Speciesism Again: The Original Leaflet”, Critical Society, Spring, 2, 1-2.
Jamieson, Dale (1999), Singer and His Critics, USA, Wiley-Blackwell.
Sharlet, Jeff (2000), Why Are We Afraid of Peter Singer? https://www.chronicle.com/article/why-are-we-afraid-of-peter-singer, March 10, 2000/.
Singer, Peter  (1993), Practical Ethics ,Second edition, USA, Monash University.
ـــــــــــــــ (2004),Taking Humanism Beyond Speciesism, Free Inquiry, 24, no. 6 (Oct/Nov) ,19-21
ـــــــــــــــ (1975), Animal Liberation, USA, Harpercollins.
Bonney ,­­­Roland and Marian Stamp Dawkins (2008) ,The Future of Animal Farming , Foreword by  peter singer, Second edition, USA, Blackwell.
Steinbock, Bonnie (1978), “Speciesism and the Idea of Equality”,  comments and on and criticisms of peter singer's “speciesism”, Argument, Philosophy 53, no, 204, 247-256
Harris, John (1985), The Value of Life , Canada , PhilPapers foundation.
Hills, Alison ( 2005), Do Animals Have Rights?, UK, Icon Books.
Kagan, Shelly (2015), “What’s Wrong with Speciesism?”, Applied Philosophy Volume33, Issue1, 1-21.
Marquis, Don (1989), “Why Abortion is Immoral Philosophy”, vo l, 86, no 4, 183-202.
Kemmerer, Lisa  (2007), “Between the Species An Online Journal for the Study of Philosophy and Animals”, Between the Species, Issue VII. 1-10.
Lazari-Radek, Katarzyna and Peter Singer (2017), Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction,  New York,  Oxford University.
Pojman. L. P. (2000), Life and Death, Usa, Wadsworth.

Teichman, Jenny (1993), The False Philosophy of Peter Singer, New York, bioethics of euthanasia.