نفس و اختلالات عصبی- روانی؛ تبیینی نوخاسته‌گرایانه و صدرایی

نوع مقاله : علمی -پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار فلسفه و کلام اسلامی دانشگاه اصفهان

2 پژوهشگر پسادکترای فلسفه و کلام اسلامی دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

انواع آسیب‌های مغزی و عصبی (از جمله اختلال هویت تجزیه‌ای، اسکیزوفرنی، تغییرات خُلقی و مانند آن) بر تباه‌شدن و دگرگون‌شدن ِکیفیاتِ حیاتی، حالاتِ ذهنی و شخصیتی، و حتی انگارۀ نفس و «خود» تأثیر مستقیم دارد. مشاهدۀ این تأثیرات، دستاویز نظریات گوناگونی دربارة وجودِ نفس و مفارقت‌پذیری آن (از نفی وجود خود/ذهن/نفس و یا نفی تجرد خود/ذهن/نفس تا نفیِ بقای نفس مجرد آن) شده است. چارچوب نظری و مفهومی نوخاسته­گرایی و حکمت متعالیه، قابلیتی دارد که می‌توان از آن در تجزیه و تحلیل این مسئله  بهره برد و نگاهی فراتر از ابزارگراییِ دوگانه­انگاران، به‌عنوان یک راهکار کلی دربارة تأثیر اختلالات عصبیِ فیزیکی بر نفسِ مجرد ارائه داد. با اذعان به نوخاسته‌گرایی جوهری و همسوبودن آن با نظریۀ جسمانیة‌الحدوث صدرایی، و عبور از دیدگاه نوخاسته‌گرایی ویژگی‌های صرف، می‌توان گفت که بدن و دستگاه پیچیدة عصبی بر اساس میزان تکامل و پیچیدگی‌اش، موجب نوخاستگیِ (حدوث) مراتبی از نفس (از نوخاستگی مرتبة گیاهی تا مرتبة وجود لنفسه و خودآیین) و نوخاستگیِ ویژگی‌های حیاتی، ذهنی و روانی متناسب می‌شود. به سبب این همبستگی و تعامل علّیِ نوخاسته‌گرایانه، انواع آسیب‌های عصبی، مادامی‌که نفسِ انسان در مرتبه نباتی، تعلق ذاتی به بدن دارد و در مرتبۀ تجرد جوهری، تعلق عارضی به بدن دارد، موجب نوخاستگیِ اختلالات روانی به‌عنوان ویژگی‌های مختل‌کننده برای جوهر نفس و نیز فروخفتگیِ برخی ویژگی‌های ذهنیِ نوخاسته می‌شود؛ بدون آنکه وجودِ بسیط، لنفسه، خودآیین و مفارقت‌پذیرِ نفس نفی و تباه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Soul and Mental-Neurological Disorders (An Emergentist and Sadraian Explanation)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Ebadi 1
  • Mohammadmahdi Amoosoltani Forooshani 2
1 Associate professor in Islamic philosophy and theology, University of Isfahan
2 Postdoctoral researcher of philosophy and islamic theology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

All kinds of brain damages and neurological disorders (including dissociative identity, schizophrenia, mood swings, etc.) affect the loss and transformation of biotic qualities, mental states, and even the idea of the soul and "self". Observing these effects leads to the development of various theories about the existence of the soul and its detachability (from the negation of self/mind/soul, or denial of its immateriality up to rejection of its surviving. The theoretical framework of emergentism and Mulla Sadra's wisdom help to analyze this challenge and to provide a superior theory to dualistic instrumentalism as a general approach to the problem of neurological disorders' effect on the soul. By attention to two types of emergentism (substance emergentism and property emergentism),  and Mulla Sadra’s theory of the “Bodily Origination” we may tell that the body and the nervous system give rise to the hierarchical emergence of the soul (from the vegetative to the self-subsistent mind/soul) and all the proper biotic and mental properties. Under this emergentist correlation of body and soul, and due to intrinsic belonging of soul to the body at the vegetative level and accidental belonging at the substantial and autonomous level of the soul's existence, brain damages and neurological disorders give rise to the emergence of mental disorders as the disruptive properties for the soul as well as submerging of some of the mental emergent properties, without the devastation of the self-subsistent and autonomous existence of the soul.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • soul
  • Mind
  • Neurological-mental Disorders
  • Emergentism
  • Bodily Origination
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