تحویل و واقع‌گرایی ساختاری وجودی

نوع مقاله : علمی -پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهشکده مطالعات بنیادین علم و فناوری دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

تحویل علمی یکی از مسائل مهم فلسفة علم است که به دیگر مسائل آن، از جمله به واقع‌گرایی علمی مربوط می‌شود. در این مقاله با اتخاذ موضعی مشخص دربارة «مفهوم تحویل» و «رویکرد به تحویل» که آن را رویکرد «ساختاری-پیشینی در زمان مشخص» نامیده‌ایم، به بررسی برقراری روابط حدی و روابط ساختاری میان دو نظریه می‌پردازیم. همچنین با فرض واقع‌گرایی ساختاریِ ‌وجودی، بیان صریح جنبة معناشنا‌ختی مسئلة تحویل و فرض برقراری جنبة معرفت‌شنا‌ختی آن، به دو اشکال که به رویکرد  ساختارگرایانه وارد شده است، پاسخ می‌دهیم؛ این دو اشکال، یکی اشکال ناشی از قضیة شفنر است و دیگری، اشکال هستی‌شناختی نامیده شده است. همچنین نشان می‌دهیم هیچ‌یک از اشکالات به رویکرد ساختاری-پیشینی در زمان مشخص وارد نیست. همین‌طور استدلال می‌کنیم که ادعای قضیة شفنر به رویکرد ساختارگرایانه، به معنای عام هم وارد نیست، و اشکال هستی‌شناختی هم تنها به بهای هزینة گزاف فرض‌های متا‌فیزیکی نه‌چندان مقبول وارد می‌شود؛ یعنی تنها بر اساس فرض‌های متا‌فیزیکی‌ای چون جوهر، این‌بودن، ویژگی ذاتی، خودبودگی یا چیزهایی شبیه به این‌ها، که بر اساس آن‌ها بتوان بین امور تمایز برقرار کرد، می‌توان اشکال را وارد دانست؛ فرض‌هایی که هزینة قبول آن‌ها بیش از قبول رویکرد ساختارگرایانه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reduction and Ontic Structural Realism

نویسنده [English]

  • Saeed Masoumi
Assistant Professor in Research Institute for Basic Studies of Science and Technology, Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

Scientific reduction is one of the most important issues in philosophy of science, which is related to other ones, including scientific realism. In this paper, by taking a clear position on the "concept of reduction" and the "approach to reduction," which we have called "the structural-a priori approach at a specific time," we examine whether or not the limit relations and structural relationships between the two theories hold. Also, by assuming ontic structural realism, explicitly stating the semantic aspect of the reduction, and assuming establishing its epistemological aspect, we respond to the two objections raised against the structuralist approach. These two objections are one resulting from Schaffner's theorem and the other from the ontological considerations. We show that none of them are related to "the structural-a priori approach at a specific time." We also argue that Schaffner's theorem does not undermine the structuralist approach in the general sense, and that ontological objection undermines only at the exorbitant cost of less plausible metaphysical hypotheses; That is, objections can be considered only on the basis of metaphysical hypotheses such as substance, thisness, intrinsic property, haecceity (or something like these); Assumptions that cost more to accept than to accept a structuralist approach.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Scientific Reduction
  • structural realism
  • Semantic Approach
  • Schaffner Theorem
  • The Concept of and Approach to Reduction
  • The Ontological Problem
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